System Approach

Please look at presentation on system approach

Audio Visual Instructional Media in Health Education Using Systematic Approach


At the end of this lecture, you will be able to:

Define A/V instructional media

  • Justify general use of media in field of nutrition
  • Point out some bases of designing media
  • Choose media according to certain criteria
  • Practice systematic approach with your patients

What ARE A/V Instructional Media

A/V instructional Media are part of the field of educational technology, which deals with technological applications. It comprises two main categories: hardware and software. Hardware contains equipment such as OHP, slide projector, computer, camera, recorder, …etc. Software contains materials such as transparencies, slide, poster, sheet, chart, cassette, CD, …etc.

Why Using A/V Instructional Media In Health Nutrition

  • To lessen verbosity
  • To stimulate patient’s concern and response
  • To enhance the effect of new healthy habits and experiences
  • To encourage self healthy activities
  • To improve the nutritionist’s presentation methods
  • To diversify methods of learning and deal with patients’ individual differences
  • To help into developing healthy skills and attitudes
  • To reinforce and stabilise correct responses
  • To be used in mass education of nutrition health and literacy
  • To master knowledge burst of field of nutrition
  • To cover shortage in qualified nutritionists

Psychological Bases of Designing A/V Instructional Media


Human perception is relative and not absolute

The patient needs to identify a reference point so he/she can relate it to the new concept. This may be achieved by comparing unknown size to a known one, using lines with different lengths and using different pictorial measures for front and back scenes

The patient needs to be relatively quick in receiving the message introduced. This may be achieved by designing non-verbal and/or non-written visual message (e.g. for illiterate patient), applying visual design principles such as shape or arrangement, emphasis (focusing on one central concept), contrast (information versus background- color and direction), harmony (integration of information parts), balance (formal vs. non-formal).

 Human perception is selective

  • Avoid details that distract patient’s attention from the main concept.
  • Present complicated procedures in a logical order.
  •  Human perception is organised
  • Give each step a number in a series of points or events
  • Use common codes so patient can easily de-code and understand them


  •  To direct human attention towards important idea or message, you need to:
  • Limit your use of titles, words, comments and headings to the least extent so it stimulates patient’s motivation to learn (text is clearly written with big size letters
  • Use arrows to point out important part of the medium
  • Separate or isolate (with circles) units or elements that work together or have same characteristics
  • Arrange things according to their sizes or colours …etc.
  • Consider novelty in a way that manifests new types of things without exaggeration.
  • Use movement, if possible.
  • Use sound (music and effects)
  • Use colours in emphasising relations either by connecting elements together or to distinguish components

Why Using A/V Instructional Media In Health Nutrition

  • Nutrition programme aims
  • Behavioural objectives
  • Patients’ individual characteristics
  • Topic content
  • Method of presentation
  • Learning situations
  • Media properties
  • Media functions
  • Physical facilities
  • Budget
  • Local production
  • Media experimentation results

Other considerations:

  • Usable
  • Cost-effective
  • Simple
  • Adequately informative
  • Scientifically correct
  • Safe




Systematic Approach of Using A/V Instructional Media in Health Nutrition Process (ASSURE Model)

  •  Step 1: Analyze Patient

“Patients are unique individuals with distinctive behavior and needs, who have a right to be informed about and involved in their care. Thus the central focus of the Health Nutrition Process is upon the individual. It requires a wide range of skills in communication so that the patient’s individual needs and problems, and the associated needs and problems of family, can be fully assessed.”

  • Step 2: State Objectives

“When gathering all available information, nutritionists have to be discerning in recognizing verbal and non-verbal cues. Once problems have been defined, they are then considered critically and the most suitable plans for solving them made. Firm, realistic goals are set and the Health Nutrition Process planned exclusively around the patient.”

  •  Step 3: Select Media (see criteria for designing and selecting media)
  • Step 4: Utilize Media (see general use of media)
  • Step 5: Require Response (implementation, activities)
  • Step 6: Evaluate


“The nutritionist’s awareness is constantly focused on the effectiveness of the care given. Regular evaluation, together with any necessary modification of care plan, based upon the patient’s emotional, physical, spiritual and social conditions, ensures that the best and most appropriate care is given.”